Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely used in construction as a material for making plaster, drywall, and cement. Gypsum is formed as evaporites from the shallow sea beds, where it is deposited through the evaporation of water. It is also found in sedimentary rocks and is a common mineral in arid and semiarid regions. Gypsum has several industrial uses, including in the production of fertilizer, soil conditioner, and as a filler in paper and paints. Additionally, gypsum is used in medical applications, such as in orthopedic casts and dental impressions due to its ability to harden when mixed with water and then revert to a soft state when wetted again.